Treating Liver Cancer 

The treatment for liver cancer depends on the stage of the condition. Treatment can include surgery and medication. Cancer Treatment Teams Most hospitals use multidisciplinary teams (MDTs) to treat liver cancer. These are teams of specialists tha

Mouth Cancer

Mouth cancer, also known as oral cancer, is where a tumourdevelops on the surface of the tongue, mouth, lips or gums. Tumours can also occur in the salivary glands, tonsils and the pharynx (the part of the throat from your mouth to your windpipe)

Treating Lung Cancer

Treatment for lung cancer is carried out by a team of specialists who will work together to provide the best possible treatment. This team contains all the specialists required to make a proper diagnosis, to stage your cancer and to plan the be

Causes of Mouth Cancer

The two leading causes of mouth cancer in the UK are drinking too much alcohol and smoking. Both alcohol and tobacco are carcinogenic, which means they contain chemicals that can damage the DNA in cells and lead to cancer. The risk of mouth

Treating Prostate Cancer  

Your treatment for prostate cancer will depend on your individual circumstances. For many men with prostate cancer, no treatment will be necessary. Active surveillance or "watchful waiting" will mean keeping an eye on the cancer and starting tr

Causes of Lung Cancer

Most cases of lung cancer are caused by smoking, although people who have never smoked can also develop the condition. Smoking Smoking cigarettes is the single biggest risk factor for lung cancer. It's responsible for more than 85% of all cases.

Diagnosing Prostate Cancer

If you have symptoms that could be caused by prostate cancer, you should visit your doctor. There is no single, definitive test for prostate cancer, so your GP will discuss the pros and cons of the various tests with you to try to avoid unnecessary

Preventing Lung Cancer

If you smoke, the best way to prevent lung cancer and other serious conditions is to stop smoking as soon as possible. However long you have been smoking, it's always worth quitting. Every year you don't smoke decreases your risk of getting se

Treating Mouth Cancer

Your treatment will depend on the type and size of the cancer, the grade and how far it's spread – as well as your general health. Your Treatment Plan If the cancer hasn't spread beyond the mouth or the oropharynx (the bit of your throat at the

Cervical Cancer

Cervical cancer is a type of cancer that develops in a woman's cervix (the entrance to the womb from the vagina). Cancer of the cervix often has no symptoms in its early stages. If you do have symptoms, the most common is unusual vaginal bleeding

Symptoms of Cervical Cancer 

The symptoms of cervical cancer aren't always obvious, and it may not cause any symptoms at all until it's reached an advanced stage. This is why it's very important that you attend all of your cervical screening appointments. Unusual Bleeding

Causes of Cervical Cancer

In almost all cases, cervical cancer is the result of a change in cell DNA caused by the human papilloma virus (HPV). Cancer begins with a change in the structure of the DNA that's present in all human cells. DNA provides the cells with a basic

Diagnosing Cervical Cancer 

If cervical cancer is suspected, you'll be referred to a gynaecologist (a specialist in treating conditions of the female reproductive system). Referral will be recommended if the results of your cervical screening test suggest that there are ab

Treating Cervical Cancer 

Treatment for cervical cancer depends on how far the cancer has spread. As cancer treatments are often complex, hospitals use multidisciplinary teams (MDTs) to treat cervical cancer and tailor the treatment programme to the individual. MDTs are m

Preventing Cervical Cancer 

There's no single way to completely prevent cervical cancer, but there are things that can reduce your risk. Safer sex Most cases of cervical cancer are linked to an infection with certain types of human papilloma virus (HPV). HPV can be spread

Diagnosing Down’s Syndrome 

Screening during pregnancy can determine the likelihood of a baby being born with Down's syndrome, but in many cases the condition is only diagnosed after birth. Screening During Pregnancy All pregnant women are offered screening for Down's syn

Causes of Down’s Syndrome 

Down's syndrome is a genetic condition that occurs as a result of an extra chromosome (chromosome 21). Chromosomes The human body is made up of cells that contain genes. Genes are grouped in thread-like structures called chromosomes. Chromosom

Down’s Syndrome

Down's syndrome, also known as Down syndrome, is a genetic condition that typically causes some level of learning disability and characteristic physical features. Around 775 babies are born with the condition each year in England and Wales. Ma

Dry Vagina

Vaginal dryness is a common but treatable problem that many women experience at some point in their lives. It can be a problem at any age, but is a particular issue for women who are going through or have experienced the Menopause. Don't ign

Hiatus Hernia

A hiatus hernia, or hiatal hernia, is when part of the stomach squeezes up into the chest through an opening ("hiatus") in the diaphragm. The diaphragm is a large, thin sheet of muscle between the chest and the abdomen (tummy). Hiatus Hernia

Ectopic Pregnancy

An ectopic pregnancy is when a fertilised egg implants itself outside of the womb, usually in one of the fallopian tubes. The fallopian tubes are the tubes connecting the ovaries to the womb. If an egg gets stuck in them, it won't develop into a 


Tetanus is a serious but rare condition caused by bacteria getting into a wound. The condition can be fatal if left untreated, but the tetanus vaccine and improvements in treatment mean deaths from tetanus are now very rare in the UK. In 2013,

Hormone Replacement Therapy

Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is a treatment used to relieve symptoms of the menopause. It replaces female hormones that are at a lower level as you approach the menopause. The menopause, sometimes referred to as the "change of life", is

Symptoms of Menopause

Most women will experience some symptoms around the menopause. The duration and severity of these symptoms varies from woman to woman. Symptoms usually start a few months or years before your periods stop, known as the perimenopause, and can

Symptoms of Womb Cancer

The most common symptom of womb cancer is abnormal bleeding from the vagina, although most people with abnormal bleeding don't have cancer. Bleeding may start as light bleeding accompanied by a watery discharge, which may get heavier over time.