Asthma is a common long-term condition that can cause coughing, wheezing, chest tightness and breathlessness. The severity of these symptoms varies from person to person. Asthma can be controlled well in most people most of the time, although some

Symptoms of Asthma

The symptoms of asthma can range from mild to severe. Most people will only experience occasional symptoms, although a few people will have problems most of the time. The main symptoms of asthma are: Wheezing (a whistling sound when you bre

Causes of Asthma

It's not clear exactly what causes asthma, although it is likely to be a combination of factors. Some of these may be genetic. However, a number of environmental factors are thought to play a role in the development of asthma. These include air

Treating Asthma

If you have asthma you should be able to lead a full and unrestricted life. For most people, the treatments are effective and they should enable you to keep the condition under control. Taking asthma medicines Inhalers Asthma medicines are usuall

Symptoms of Chronic Kidney Disease 

Most people with CKD have no symptoms because the body can tolerate even a large reduction in kidney function.  In other words, we are born with a lot more kidney function than is necessary for survival. Kidney function is often sufficient if only

Causes of Chronic kidney Disease 

Kidney disease is most often caused by other conditions that put a strain on the kidneys. High blood pressure (hypertension) and diabetes are the most common causes of kidney disease. The evidence indicates that high blood pressure causes just ov

Chronic Kidney Disease

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a long-term condition where the kidneys do not work effectively. CKD does not usually cause symptoms until it reaches an advanced stage. It is usually detected at earlier stages by blood and urine tests. Main sympto

Kidney Transplant

A kidney transplant is the transfer of a healthy kidney from one person into the body of a person who has little or no kidney function. The main role of the kidneys is to filter waste products from the blood and convert them to urine. If the kidne

Side Effects of Dialysis

Both haemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis cause side effects. This is because of the way dialysis is carried out and the fact it can only partially compensate for the loss of kidney function. Fatigue Fatigue, where you feel tired and exhausted


Dialysis is a procedure to remove waste products and excess fluid from the blood when the kidneys stop working properly. It often involves diverting blood to a machine to be cleaned. Normally, the kidneys filter the blood, removing harmful was

Diagnosing Kidney Cancer

In many cases, kidney cancer is diagnosed after routine scans and check-ups, as the condition doesn't always have obvious symptoms. Seeing your doctor You should see a doctor if you have any symptoms of kidney cancer, such as blood in your u

Treating Kidney Cancer

The treatment of kidney cancer depends on the size and spread of the cancer. Surgery is the most common first course of action, with the aim of removing the cancer cells. Unlike most other cancers, chemotherapy isn't very effective in treating kidne

Causes of Kidney Cancer

The exact cause of kidney cancer is unknown, but there are risk factors that can increase the chances of developing the condition. The three main risk factors for kidney cancer are: Obesity Smoking Family history and genetics Obesi

Symptoms of Kidney Cancer

Most cases of kidney cancer don't cause any symptoms in the early stages. The most common symptoms of mid- to advanced-stage kidney cancer are: Blood in your urine (haematuria) – the amount of blood is usually high enough to change the colo

Kidney Cancer

Kidney cancer is the eighth most common cancer in adults in the UK, with just over 10,100 people diagnosed each year. Signs and symptoms of kidney cancer can include: Blood in your urine A constant pain in your side, just below the ribs

Treating Kidney Stones

Most kidney stones will be small enough (no more than 4mm or 0.2in in diameter) to be passed out in your urine. It may be possible to treat these at home. However, small kidney stones may still cause pain. The pain from smaller kidney stones usua

Causes of Kidney Stones

Kidney stones are usually formed following a build-up of a substance in the body. This build-up may be any of the following: Calcium Ammonia Uric acid (a waste product produced when the body breaks down food to use as energy) Cystin

Symptoms of Kidney Stones

If you have a kidney stone that is very small, it is unlikely to cause many symptoms. It may even go undetected and pass out painlessly when you urinate. Symptoms usually occur if the kidney stone: Gets stuck in your kidney Starts to trave

Kidney stones

Kidney stones are stone-like lumps that can develop in one or both of the kidneys. The medical name for stones in the kidneys is nephrolithiasis. If the stones cause severe pain, this is known as renal colic. Symptoms of kidney stones Small sto

Kidney Infection

A kidney infection (pyelonephritis) is a painful and unpleasant illness caused by bacteria travelling from your bladder into one or both of your kidneys. It's more serious than cystitis, a common infection of the bladder that makes urinating painful.

Symptoms of kidney infection

The symptoms of a kidney infection usually develop quite quickly over a few hours or days. Common symptoms include: Pain and discomfort in your side, lower back or around your genitals High temperature (it may reach 39.5C or 103.1F) Shivering

Causes of Kidney Infection

A kidney infection happens when bacteria infects your kidneys. The bacteria are usually a type called E. coli, which live in your bowel. The bacteria get in through the opening of the urethra and move upwards through your urinary tract, first infecti

Diagnosing Kidney Infection

To work out if you have a kidney infection, your doctor will ask you about your symptoms and your recent medical history. They will usually also assess your general health by taking your temperature and measuring your blood pressure. Urine test

Symptoms of gout

The main symptom of gout is a sudden attack of severe pain in one or more joints, typically your big toe. Other symptoms can include: The joint feeling hot and very tender, to the point of being unable to bear anything touching it.

Diagnosing gout

Your GP may suspect gout based on your symptoms. Sometimes further tests will be needed to confirm the diagnosis and rule out other possible causes. Seeing your GP See your GP if you experience symptoms of gout for the first time. Your GP will as