Diagnosing Angina 

If you see your doctor after experiencing chest pain, they'll probably ask about the pattern of your symptoms – for example, if you've noticed any particular triggers.   Your GP will then assess whether you're at increased risk of developing

Causes of Angina

Angina is caused by narrowing and hardening of the main blood vessels going to the heart, which limits blood supply to this major organ. Like all of the body’s organs and tissues, your heart needs a constant supply of oxygen-rich blood to functi

Symptoms of Angina

The most common symptom of angina is a feeling of pain or discomfort in your chest. The pain can feel tight, dull or heavy. The pain can spread from your chest to your left arm, neck, jaw and back. In some cases, the pain is similar to indigestion.

Treating Angina 

Treatment of angina aims to provide immediate relief from the symptoms, prevent future attacks, and reduce your risk of having a heart attack or stroke. If your risk is thought to be high, a combination of surgery and medication will probably be

Preventing Angina 

Having a healthy lifestyle is the most effective way of reducing your risk of angina. If you already have angina, making lifestyle changes also helps prevent your symptoms getting worse and reduces your risk of having a heart attack or stroke.


Angina is chest pain that occurs when the blood supply to the muscles of the heart is restricted. It usually happens because the arteries supplying the heart become hardened and narrowed. The pain and discomfort of angina feels like a dull, heav


Anaphylaxis is a severe, potentially life-threatening allergic reaction that can develop rapidly. It is also known as anaphylactic shock. Signs of anaphylaxis include: Itchy skin or a raised, red skin rash Swollen eyes, lips, hands and

Anaphylaxis Treatment

If you think somebody is experiencing symptoms of anaphylaxis, you should use an adrenaline injector if one is available. Dial 999 immediately afterwards. Call 999 straight away if an adrenaline injector is not available. If you can see a poten

Causes of Anaphylaxis

Anaphylaxis is caused by a problem with the immune system, which is the body's natural defence against illness and infection. In the case of anaphylaxis, your immune system overreacts to a harmless substance and releases a number of different chemic

Preventing Anaphylaxis  

If you have anaphylaxis, you should be offered advice and medication to help prevent further episodes. Allergy clinic You should be referred to a specialist allergy clinic for tests to find out what caused the anaphylaxis. Knowing what allergen t


If you're becoming increasingly forgetful, particularly if you're over the age of 65, it may be a good idea to talk to your GP about the early signs of dementia. As you get older, you may find that memory loss becomes a problem. It's normal for y

Symptoms of Alzheimer’s Disease

The symptoms of Alzheimer's disease progress slowly over several years. Sometimes these symptoms are confused with other conditions and may initially be put down to old age. The rate at which the symptoms progress is different for each individual

Diagnosing Alzheimer’s Disease

It's best to see your GP if you're worried about your memory or think you may have dementia. If you're worried about someone else, encourage them to make an appointment and perhaps suggest going with them. It's often very helpful having a friend

Treating Alzheimer’s Disease

There's currently no cure for Alzheimer's disease, although medication is available that can temporarily reduce some symptoms or slow down the progression of the condition in some people. Support is also available to help someone with the conditio

Causes of Alzheimer’s Disease

Alzheimer's disease is caused by parts of the brain shrinking (atrophy), which affects the structure and function of particular brain areas. It's not known exactly what causes this process to begin. However, in the brains of people with Alzheimer

Preventing Alzheimer’s Disease

As the exact cause of Alzheimer's disease is still unknown, there's no way to prevent the condition. However, there are steps you can take that may help to delay the onset of dementia. Reducing your risk of cardiovascular disease Cardiovascular

Alzheimer’s Disease

Alzheimer's disease is the most common type of dementia, affecting an estimated 850,000 people in the UK. Dementia is a progressive neurological disease which affects multiple brain functions, including memory. The exact cause of Alzheimer's d

Chest Pain

Chest pain can be caused by anything from muscle pain to a heart attack and should never be ignored. When to get help You should call 999 for an ambulance immediately if you develop sudden severe chest pain, particularly if: The pain feels he

Abdominal Pain

A stomach ache is a term often used to refer to cramps or a dull ache in the tummy (abdomen). It's usually short-lived and is often not serious. Severe abdominal pain is a greater cause for concern. If it starts suddenly and unexpectedly, it shoul

Preventing Hay Fever 

It's very difficult to completely avoid pollen. However, reducing your exposure to the substances that trigger your hay fever should ease your symptoms. Rubbing a small amount of Vaseline (petroleum gel) inside your lower nostrils can help to prev

Causes of Hay Fever 

Hay fever is an allergic reaction to pollen. When these tiny particles come into contact with the cells that line your mouth, nose, eyes and throat, they irritate them and trigger an allergic reaction. Allergic reaction When you have an allergi

Symptoms of Hay Fever

Hay fever symptoms vary in severity and may be worse some years, depending on the weather conditions and pollen count. The time of year your symptoms start will depend on the types of pollen you're allergic to. The symptoms of hay fever include:

Diagnosing Hay Fever

Your doctor should be able to diagnose hay fever from a description of your symptoms. In some cases, you may be referred for allergy testing. A diagnosis for hay fever would usually only be required: If your symptoms were particularly severe

Treating Hay Fever

Before going to see your doctor you could visit your pharmacist and try to treat your hay fever symptoms with over-the-counter medications, such as antihistamines. Make an appointment to see your doctor if your symptoms don't improve after using a

Hay Fever

Hay fever is a common allergic condition that affects up to one in five people at some point in their life. Symptoms of Hay Fever include: Sneezing A runny nose Itchy eyes You'll experience hay fever symptoms if you have an allerg