Kidney stones are usually formed following a build-up of a substance in the body.
This build-up may be any of the following:
Certain medical conditions can lead to an unusually high level of these substances in your urine. You are also more likely to develop kidney stones if you do not drink enough fluids.
You are at a greater risk of developing recurrent (returning) kidney stones if:
There is evidence that certain types of medication may increase your risk of developing recurrent kidney stones. These include:
Kidney stones can develop as a result of a number of different factors. The causes of the four main types of kidney stone are outlined below.
Calcium stones are the most common type of kidney stone. They are caused when there is too much calcium in the urine. High amounts of calcium could be a result of:
Calcium stones are usually either large and smooth or spiky and rough.
Struvite stones are often caused by infections, and they most commonly occur after a urinary tract infection that has lasted a long time. Struvite stones are more common in women than in men.
Uric acid stones often form when there is a high amount of acid in your urine. Uric acid stones may be caused by:
Cystine stones are the rarest form of kidney stone. They are caused by an inherited condition called cystinuria, which affects the amount of acid that is passed in your urine.
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Treating Chronic Kidney Disease
Causes of Chronic kidney Disease
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Treating Kidney Cancer
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Treating Kidney Stones
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Source: NHS UK