Treating Ataxia 

The treatment for ataxia can vary depending on exact what type of ataxia you have. It's sometimes possible to treat the underlying cause of the condition so it improves or stops getting worse, but in most cases this isn't possible and you'll hav

Diagnosing Ataxia

Diagnosing ataxia Visit your doctor if you or your child have unexplained symptomssuch as balance and co-ordination problems or difficulty walking, talking or swallowing. Family and medical history Your doctor may ask whether you have any family

Causes of Ataxia 

Ataxia is usually caused by damage to a part of the brain known as the cerebellum, but it can also be caused by damage to the spinal cord or other nerves. The spinal cord is a long bundle of nerves that runs down the spine and connects the br

Types of Ataxia 

Some types of ataxia affect children from an early age, while other types may not develop until much later in adulthood. Depending on the type of ataxia, the symptoms may stay the same, get progressively worse, or slowly improve. Some of


Cataracts occur when changes in the lens of the eye cause it to become less transparent (clear). This results in cloudy or misty vision. The lens is the crystalline structure that sits just behind your pupil (the black circle in the centre of your ey

Cataract Surgery

Before having cataract surgery, you'll be referred to a specialist eye doctor (an ophthalmologist or ophthalmic surgeon) for an assessment. The specialist will assess your eyes and general health, and check for any other eye conditions that may be af


Ataxia is a term for a group of disorders that affect co-ordination, balance and speech. Any part of the body can be affected, but people with ataxia often have difficulties with: balance and walking speaking swallowing

Treating Chronic Kidney Disease

Although there is no cure for kidney disease, treatment can help relieve symptoms, slow or prevent progression of the condition, and reduce the risk of developing related problems. Your treatment will depend on the stage of your chronic kidney di


Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) is a common condition, where acid from the stomach leaks up into the oesophagus (gullet). It usually occurs as a result of the ring of muscle at the bottom of the oesophagus becoming weakened. GORD caus

Causes of Constipation 

Constipation usually occurs when stools remain in the colon (large intestine) for too long, and the colon absorbs too much water from the stools, causing them to become hard and dry. Most cases of constipation aren't caused by a specific conditi

Symptoms of Constipation

When you're constipated, passing stools becomes more difficult and less frequent than usual. Normal bowel habits vary from person to person. Some adults go to the toilet more than once a day, whereas others may only go every three or four days.

Diagnosing Constipation

Constipation is a very common condition. Your GP won't usually need to carry out any tests or procedures, but will confirm a diagnosis based on your symptoms and medical history. Your GP will ask you some questions about your bowel habits. Don't

Treating Constipation 

Treatment for constipation depends on the cause, how long you've had it and how severe your symptoms are. In many cases, it's possible to relieve the symptoms by making dietary and lifestyle changes. The various treatments for constipation�


Constipation is a common condition that affects people of all ages. It can mean that you're not passing stools regularly or you're unable to completely empty your bowel. Constipation can also cause your stools to be hard and lumpy, as well as unu

Symptoms Of Shingles 

An episode of shingles typically lasts around two to four weeks. The main symptoms are pain, followed by a rash. Any part of your body can be affected, including your face and eyes, although the chest and abdomen (tummy) are the most common are

Causes of Shingles

Shingles is caused by the reactivation of the varicella-zoster virus, which is the virus that causes chickenpox. After you have had Chickenpox, the varicella-zoster virus lies dormant (inactive) inside your body. It can become reactivated at

Treating Shingles 

There is no cure for shingles, but treatment can help ease your symptoms until the condition improves. In many cases, shingles gets better within around two to four weeks. However, it's still important to see your GP as soon as possible if you r

Diagnosing Shingles 

Your GP will normally be able to diagnose shingles from your symptoms and the appearance of your rash. Testing is not usually necessary. Referral It is uncommon for someone with shingles to be referred to a specialist for further assessment and


Shingles, also known as herpes zoster, is an infection of a nerve and the skin around it. It's caused by the varicella-zoster virus, which also causes chickenpox. It's estimated that around one in every four people will have at least one episode

Symptoms of Rabies 

The initial symptoms of rabies are mild, but they quickly become serious. The Incubation Period The incubation period is the time it takes for symptoms to develop after a person is infected with the virus. The incubation period for rabies is usua

Treating Rabies

If you have been exposed (bitten, scratched or licked) by an animal that might have rabies, you'll need to seek medical advice to determine whether you need to have a course of treatment to prevent rabies. This is called post-exposure treatment.

Rabies Vaccination

A vaccination offering protection against rabies is recommended for people who are felt to be at risk. Who Should Be Vaccinated? In the UK, the rabies vaccination is offered to: Laboratory workers who may be required to handle samples of t


Rabies is a very serious viral infection that targets the brain and nervous system. You can catch rabies if you are bitten by an infected animal and haven't been vaccinated. It's almost always fatal once symptoms develop, but can be prevented if

What Happens If You Have A Miscarriage

If there's no pregnancy tissue left in your womb, no treatment is required. However, if there's still some pregnancy tissue in your womb, your options are: Expectant management– wait for the tissue to pass naturally out of your womb Me

Leg Cramps

Leg cramps are a common and usually harmless condition where the muscles in your leg suddenly become tight and painful. It usually occurs in the calf muscles, although it can affect any part of your leg, including your feet and thighs. After