Somalia: Consultancy: Developing pathways for Inclusion of the Most Vulnerable People in Resilience Programming

TOR for Developing pathways for Inclusion of the Most Vulnerable People in Resilience Programming

1.0 Program Background

Since the devastating drought in 2011 in Somalia, several SomReP (i.e. Somali Resilience Programme[1] (SomReP), Somalia Resilience Action Consortium[2] (STREAM), and Building Resilience Communities in Somalia[3] (BRCiS)) were established to enhance the resilience of vulnerable households and communities against cyclical shocks and stressors as well as to be able to better secure households’ needs year after year. The aim of the SomReP is collectively to help protect livelihoods against continuing shocks by contributing to improved resilience for communities and households. SomReP target interventions that aim to build adaptive, absorptive, and transformation capacities toward achieving improvements in economic wellbeing, hence improving their resilience to cyclic shocks. Furthermore, SomReP advocate for the importance of resilience building at the household and community level within the broader agenda of moving Somalia towards peace and development.

The main target group of the interventions are pastoralists, agro-pastoralists, and peri-urban poor which include the internally displaced people (IDPs). These IDPs face peculiar livelihood vulnerability given their high propensity to be internally displaced households, female-headed households, or youth with few employment prospects.

To achieve these objectives, SomReP support resilience through:

  1. Livelihoods & food security: HHs in targeted communities have improved access to productive livelihoods for enhanced food access and diversity;

  2. Social Safety Nets: HHs in target communities have their livelihoods and assets protected during shocks and stressors through the establishment and strengthening of social safety nets, including the use of crisis modifier mechanisms such as Savings Group Schemes;

  3. Natural resource management: Eco–system health improved through promotion of equitable and sustainable natural resource management;

  4. Local governance capacity building: communities, civil society and local institutions are better equipped with resilience strategies and response capacities to cope with recurrent shocks and stressors.

Understanding that the success of SomReP’s resilience programs is somehow very much dependent on the SomReP’s ability to reach out to the most vulnerable individuals, households and communities and clans, the SomReP have commissioned this inclusivity study with the purpose of understanding the level of participation of most vulnerable people in resilience programming and interventions and investigating the underlying factors that stop or inhibit participation of the most marginalized or vulnerable groups. The study will be jointly funded by SomReP and STREAM and will technically benefit from the rich knowledge and expertise of all the three SomReP. SomReP will be the lead and will coordinate the entire process and ensure that there is maximum participation of all SomReP members.

1.1. Research Context

Supporting the ability of the most vulnerable women and girls, lesser-clans, people with disabilities, landless farmers, single-headed household to succeed and advance economically leads to healthy and productive households, resilience and the well-being of communities. Despite the SomReP putting in mechanisms to ensure that most vulnerable households and communities are targeted, vulnerable people continue to be excluded and continue to face significant barriers to achieving their full potential. Disadvantages in political, social and economic relationships perpetuate inequalities. In the fragile and emergency contexts, the most vulnerable (women and girls, lesser-clans, people with disabilities, landless farmers, single-headed households) face a higher risk of discrimination. Many microfinance institutions (MFIs) for example avoid clients with disabilities (Groce[4] et al., 2011, p. 1505; Leymat[5], 2012, p. 28), often due to perceived and incorrect assumptions that people with disabilities will be unable to pay back the money borrowed (Mont[6], 2014, p. 33). Young people with disabilities find it particularly hard to get apprenticeships or training (Groce & Kett[7], 2014, pp. 7-8). UNISDR[8] (2014) and Smith[9] et al. (2012) point out that people with disabilities are often excluded from disaster management and risk reduction processes, and are disproportionately affected by conflicts and disasters. Humanitarian response is often inaccessible (UNISDR, 2014, p. 4; Mitchell[10] & Karr, 2014). Approaches therefore that systematically and visibly reduce vulnerability gaps and ensure that vulnerable people are given the tools, resources, and opportunities to lead and participate are critical to the success of resilience programing in the fragile context.

Functioning institutions of good governance and accountability are equally essential in enhancing inclusive participation and ability to address and reduce risk. This requires institutions and processes that are transparent, accountable, and responsive to the people and that promote positive society relationships (including a strong VDCs, EWC, producers groups, NRM/ water committees, VSLAs, and VRC). Any approach that seeks to build resilience should be informed by society dynamics, as humanitarian needs may be great in areas emerging from disaster or still fragile. Programming that promotes holistic inclusion, and strengthens community institutions, plays an important role in contributing to the adaptive, absorptive and transformative programing.

2.0 Objective of the study and Research Questions

The main objective of the study is to identify major determinants for inclusion and exclusion and develop pathways for inclusion in SomReP programming.

2.1. Specific objectives of the study

· Identify key determinants of inclusion and exclusion in SomReP programming;

· Establish causal linkages and relationships of multiple variables affecting inclusion and exclusion of most vulnerable people in SomReP programing;

· Conduct simulations to establish the effects of inclusion and exclusion of the most vulnerable people in SomReP programming on resilience; and

· Develop pathways to guide the process of inclusion and participation of most vulnerable in the SomReP Programming.

2.2. Key Questions and Areas of Inquiry

· What are the key determinants of inclusion and exclusion in programming in Somali Context?

· What are the casual linkages and relationships of the multiple variables affecting inclusion of the most vulnerable people in SomReP programming?

· What are the effects of inclusion and exclusion of the most vulnerable people in SomReP programming on resilience; and

· How can inclusion and participation of most vulnerable people be enhanced in the SomReP Programming.

3.0 Methodology

The consultant is expected to develop a detailed research methodology based on their understanding of the terms of reference. The final research methodology shall be agreed upon between the consultant and the SomReP partners.

3.1 Data Collection

The study will be deploy quantitative methods. While the onus to choose the study design and data collection methodologies is left to the consultant, SomReP strongly recommends that both secondary and primary data should be utilized. Secondary data should be collected through literature review of key project documents such as project proposal documents, project progress reports, targeting tools and data collection forms, and Somali Government Policy documents. This will be necessary for the consultant to understand the extent to which issues of inclusion are mainstreamed in programming and institutionalized at government level.

Primary data shall be collected through quantitative methods. The consultant is expected to collect data from beneficiaries, non-beneficiaries, and influential leaders in the communities to understand the context, targeting process at community level, and establish the underlying factors that inhibit or foster inclusion and participation of the most vulnerable people in the programme. The consultant is at liberty to propose additional or new data collection methods based on their understanding of the assignment. However the final methods have to be agreed upon between the consultant and SomReP.

3.2 Study Areas

The study will be implemented in four districts (four SomReP districts and two STREAM districts) which include Afgoye (10,612 households), Baidoa (12,897 households), Kasmayo (2000 households), Afmadhow/dhobley (3000 households), Dollow (1,088 households) and Belethaya (2,830 households).

4.0 Management of the Consultancy and Reporting

The consultants to undertake the assignment will report directly to the M&E Manager for SomReP who will in return report to SomReP to make sure compliance with the intended goals. Regular consultation meetings will be arranged between the SomReP technical unit (TU) and the consultant as need arises.

5.0 Authority and Responsibility

5.1. The SomReP

· Provide the selected consultant with necessary documents to enable a clear reporting and understanding of the SomReP program.

· Create linkages with field staff, Implementing Partners and other stakeholders to ensure effective accomplishment of consultant research study.

· Review report and provide feedback to the consultant to ensure consistency with SomReP implementation objective.

· Arrange key informant interviews and focus-group discussions as per the evaluation methodology.

· Liaise with local implementing partners on behalf of the consultant to plan data collection

· Provide necessary orientation and training to the consultant.

· Review and approve field approaches to be used by the consultant.

· Review the draft report and provide feedback to the consultant.

5.2. The Consultant

· Provide summary fact sheet highlighting key findings

· Develop assessment plan, methodology and appropriate/relevant data collection tools.

· Work closely with SomReP M&E reps through SomRep M&E Manager and project staff during the design of the methodology/ tools; agree on the tools that will be used.

· Incorporate feedback into tools and reports which will be given from the team.

· Train enumerators, guide and supervise enumerators during data collection in the field.

· Make visits to data collection site and do Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) and Key Informant Interviews (KIIs).

· Compile a comprehensive draft report for the assignment covering both the document review and primary research with compelling recommendations.

· Do de-briefing on preliminary findings to the field team soon after data collection Report writing. The result is expected to be shared with the stakeholders and the consultant needs to give due attention for the quality of the report.

6.0 Logistics

WV will facilitate any travel logistics including, access to operational area, flights and accommodation where necessary. The consultant is expected to charge only consultancy fees.

7.0 Proposal Content

Proposals from Consultants should include the following information (at a minimum)

· Technical Proposal with clear methodology, including types of data collection tools and analysis

· CV of key consultant(s) attached to the technical proposal

· Proposed budget

· Proposed timeline

· Two samples of past similar evaluations;

· Two referees for programme evaluation work completed in the last year

8.0 The desired profile of the baseline external consultant

· In-depth knowledge of Somalia and its regions including government and community level service delivery structures

· Minimum Master’s Degree in social sciences, economic development, rural development and agriculture studies or related subjects and, experience in resilience. PHD is an added advantage.

· Three or more similar evaluation exercises with European Union funded development programmes (or previous solid experience of evaluating complex integrated resilience programmes fragile humanitarian contexts.)

· Has technically sound experiences in Qualitative Assessments and Evaluation Studies in Somalia context

· Has extensive experiences in livelihood programmes with previous experience in implementing food security and rural livelihoods programmes in humanitarian and conflict contexts especially in the HORN of Africa, Somalia is added advantage. Strong written, communication, and interpersonal skills in English, with substantial experience in training and managing teams

· Prior experience working in Somalia and relationships with Somali-speaking field data collection supervisors will be an added advantage.

[1] SomReP is made up of seven NGOs namely Action Contre la Faim (ACF), Adventist Development and Relief Agency (ADRA), CARE, Cooperazione Internazionale (COOPI), Danish Refugee Council (DRC), Oxfam, World Vision (WV).

[2] STREAM is made up of three NGOs namely, ACTED, SADO, and ADESO.

[3] BRCiS is made up of five NGOs namely, Cooperazione e Suiluppo (CESVI), Concern Worldwide (CWW), The Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC), The International Rescue Committee (IRC), and Save the Children International (SCI).

[4] Groce, N., Kett, M., Lang, R. & Trani, J-F. (2011) Disability and Poverty: the need for a more nuanced understanding of implications for development policy and practice. Third World Quarterly, 32(8), 1493-1513.

[5] Leymat, A. (2012). Inclusive microfinance: Reaching disabled people through partnership development. Enterprise Development and Microfinance, 23:1, 25-37.

[6] Mont, D. (2014). Employment policy approaches and multisectoral implementation in low-and middle-income countries. In J. Heymann, M .A. Stein, & G. Moreno (Eds). Disability and equality at work. New York: Oxford University Press.

[7] Groce, N. & Kett, M. (2014). Youth with disabilities (Working Paper Series: No. 23). London: Leonard Cheshire Disability and Inclusive Development Centre.…

[8] UNISDR. (2014). Living with disability and disasters: UNISDR 2013 survey on living with disabilities and disasters – Key findings. UNISDR.…

[9] Smith, F., Jolley, E. & Schmidt, E. (2012). Disability and disasters: The importance of an inclusive approach to vulnerability and social capital. The World We Want.

[10] Mitchell, D. & Karr, V. (Eds.). (2014). Crises, conflict and disability: Ensuring equality. New York: Routledge.

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