Causes of Depression

There is no single cause of depression. You can develop it for different reasons and it has many different triggers. For some, an upsetting or stressful life event – such as bereavement, divorce, illness, redundancy and job or money worries

Symptoms of Depression

Symptoms of Clinical Depression The symptoms of depression can be complex and vary widely between people. But as a general rule, if you are depressed, you feel sad, hopeless and lose interest in things you used to enjoy. The symptoms persist f

Diagnosing Depression

Diagnosing clinical depression If you experience symptoms of depression for most of the day, every day for more than two weeks, you should seek help from your GP. It is especially important to speak to your GP if you experience: Symptoms

Treating Bronchitis 

Most cases of bronchitis do not require treatment from a doctor, and the symptoms can be easily managed at home. There is no cure for chronic bronchitis, but healthy living will help. In particular, you should stop smoking, if you smoke. Managi

Symptoms of Bronchitis 

The main symptom of bronchitis is a hacking cough. It is likely that your cough will bring up thick yellow-grey mucus (phlegm), although this does not always happen. Other symptoms of bronchitis are similar to those of other infections, such as the

Causes of Bronchitis

The bronchitis infection can be caused by either a virus or bacteria, although viral bronchitis is much more common. In most cases, bronchitis is caused by the same viruses that cause the common cold or flu. The virus is contained in the millions o


Pneumonia is swelling (inflammation) of the tissue in one or both lungs. It's usually caused by a bacterial infection. At the end of the breathing tubes in your lungs are clusters of tiny air sacs. If you have pneumonia, these tiny sacs become in

Treating Pneumonia

Mild pneumonia can usually be treated at home with rest,antibiotics and by drinking plenty of fluids. More severe cases may need hospital treatment. Unless a healthcare professional tells you otherwise, you should always finish taking a prescribed


Bronchitis is an infection of the main airways of the lungs (bronchi), causing them to become irritated and inflamed. The main symptom is a cough, which may bring up yellow-grey mucus (phlegm). Bronchitis may also cause a sore throat and wheezi

Diagnosing Bladder Cancer 

If you have symptoms of bladder cancer, such as blood in your urine, you should see your doctor. Your doctor may ask about your symptoms, family history and whether you've been exposed to any possible causes of bladder cancer, such as smoking.

Causes of Bladder Cancer

Bladder cancer is caused by changes to the cells of the bladder. It's often linked with exposure to certain chemicals, but the cause isn't always known. What is Cancer? Cancer begins with a change (mutation) in the structure of the DNA in cells, w

Symptoms of Bladder Cancer

Blood in your urine is the most common symptom of bladder cancer. The medical name for this is haematuria and it's usually painless. You may notice streaks of blood in your urine or the blood may turn your urine brown. The blood isn't always n

Treatment for Bladder Cancer

The treatment options for bladder cancer largely depend on how advanced the cancer is. Treatments usually differ between early stage, non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer and more advanced muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Multidisciplinary teams (MDT

Preventing Bladder Cancer

It's not always possible to prevent bladder cancer, but some risk factors have been identified, which may increase your risk of developing the condition. Stopping smoking If you smoke, giving up is the best way to reduce your risk of developing b

Bladder Cancer

Bladder cancer is where a growth of abnormal tissue, known as a tumour, develops in the bladder lining. In some cases, the tumour spreads into the surrounding muscles. The most common symptom of bladder cancer is blood in your urine, which is usua

Treating Bladder Stones

Surgery will usually be needed to remove bladder stones. It may be possible to flush small bladder stones out of your bladder by drinking lots of water, but this may not work if you can't completely empty your bladder of urine. Transurethral c

Causes of Bladder Stones

Bladder stones usually form when you can't completely empty your bladder of urine. Urine is produced by your kidneys. It's made up of water mixed with waste products that the kidneys remove from your blood. One of the waste products is urea, whi

Bladder Stones

Bladder stones are hard lumps of minerals that can form inside the bladder when it's not completely empty of urine. They may not cause any symptoms if they're small enough to be passed out of the bladder when you pee. However, most people with

Blood in Urine

Finding blood in your urine can be very frightening and must be investigated by a doctor, but it's not usually a sign of anything life-threatening. If you notice bright red blood in your urine, or if your urine has turned red or brown because it

Symptoms of Breast Cancer in Men

The main symptom of breast cancer in men is a hard lump in one of your breasts. The lump is almost always painless. The lump is usually located underneath the nipple and areola (the circle of dark-coloured skin surrounding the nipple). However, t

Breast Cancer

Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in the UK. In 2011, just under 50,000 women were diagnosed with invasive breast cancer. Most women who get it (8 out of 10) are over 50, but younger women, and in rare cases, men, can also get breas

Living with Breast Cancer 

Breast cancer can affect your daily life in different ways, depending on what stage it's at and what treatment you're having. How women cope with their diagnosis and treatment varies from person to person. There are several forms of support if you n

Preventing Breast Cancer

As the causes of breast cancer aren't fully understood, it's not known if it can be prevented altogether. Some treatments are available to reduce the risk in women who have a higher risk of developing the condition than the general population. Die

Treating Breast Cancer

If you have cancer you should be assigned a multidisciplinary team (MDT) – a team of specialists who work together to provide the best treatment and care. The main treatments for breast cancer are: Surgery Radiotherapy Chemotherapy

Diagnosing Breast Cancer 

You may be diagnosed with breast cancer following routine breast screening, or you may have symptoms that you've seen your doctor about. Seeing your Doctor See your doctor as soon as possible if you notice any symptoms of breast cancer, such as an