Kyrgyzstan’s security forces have arrested former President Almazbek Atambayev after a botched raid on his property overnight resulted in the death of one officer.
Mr Atambayev reportedly surrendered and was taken to the country’s capital, Bishkek.
He had earlier refused to surrender, provoking a standoff in which his supporters took six officers captive.
He has denied corruption charges, saying they are politically motivated.
Special forces officers attempted to raid Mr Atambayev’s house late on Wednesday night, but his supporters took up arms in his defence. The six soldiers they captured were later released.
Shortly afterwards, gunfire and stun grenades were reported at the home in a second raid on the property, on the outskirts of the capital.
President Sooronbai Jeenbekov – Mr Atambayev’s former ally and successor – said the ex-president had “grossly flouted” the law by “putting up severe armed resistance” to police.
While previously considered to be a witness, Mr Atambayev – who led Kyrgyzstan from 2011 to 2017 – is now wanted for a “grave crime”, the president told a special parliamentary session.
Mr Atambayev denied the charge, saying it was politically motivated.
Special forces used an armoured vehicle to break through the gates of the compound in Koi Tash village outside the capital, and soldiers blocked roads leading to Mr Atambayev’s residence, local media reported.
Reports from local journalists at the scene said Mr Atambayev surrendered to officers. Two aides were thought to be with him.
Local news site 24.kg reports he was flown by helicopter to avoid supporters who were blocking the roads.
Politician Irina Karamushkina, an ally of Mr Atambayev’s, told AFP that his supporters were “ready to defend the former president to the end”.
The former president had planned a rally on Thursday, but cancelled it and called his supporters back to defend his residence.
The raid began late on Wednesday. According to Kyrgyzstan’s national security committee (GKNB), special forces armed “only with rubber bullets” were undertaking a “special operation to detain” the former president.
As the troops moved in, the GKNB said, Mr Atambayev’s supporters fired back with live ammunition.
But Mr Atambayev has taken responsibility for the shooting, saying only he had a gun.
One officer was killed, while 80 people were injured – including several members of the security forces – and 53 hospitalised.
“A special forces officer was delivered [to hospital] in an extremely serious condition with a gunshot wound. Despite resuscitation attempts, he died,” a health ministry statement said.
Local media reports say six other soldiers were being held by Mr Atambayev’s followers shortly after the raid was repelled.
As night fell, roads leading to the compound were barricaded by Mr Atambayev’s supporters while security forces regrouped nearby.
Witness Mirbek Aitikeyev, who posted footage of the raid on Facebook, told AFP news agency that some of those protecting Mr Atambayev had seized weapons from the special forces, who “retreated under the onslaught of the crowd”.
“Atambayev is still at his home… there are rumours that additional forces will be sent. The people here are making preparations,” he said.
By Abdujalil Abdurasulov, BBC News
The end of Almazbek Atambayev’s presidency in 2017 was hailed as the first peaceful power transfer in independent Kyrgyzstan achieved through elections. But recent events show that violence was merely postponed for two years.
Sooronbay Jeyenbekov was seen as Mr Atambayev’s hand-picked successor – but something went wrong, and Mr Atambayev fell out with the new president. Mr Atambayev retreated to his village house where he surrounded himself with his supporters. Yet many were still shocked when the operation to detain Mr Atambayev involving special forces started.
Military vehicles and ambulances speeding to the village, along with reports of a shootout, fuelled an atmosphere of fear. But the general public do not appear to support either side.
Many are angry that a conflict between two politicians is threatening stability of the entire country. “Don’t be fooled that we’re choosing between [Atambayev] and the current government. They’re from the same flesh,” wrote Azim Azimov, a popular blogger.
Kyrgyzstan is a Central Asian republic that became independent with the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. It is about two-thirds the size of the United Kingdom, but has a population of just six million – most of whom are Turkic-speaking Muslims.
The country remains relatively poor, with a GDP per capita on par with Cameroon or Kenya. Dissatisfaction with the government has meant a lack of political stability since independence – the first two post-Soviet presidents were deposed after waves of mass protests.
Relations between Mr Atambayev and Mr Jeyenbekov soured after the transfer of power, and observers say Mr Jeenbekov moved to sideline his predecessor politically last year by removing Atambayev loyalists from positions of power.
Parliament stripped Mr Atambayev of his immunity in June so that he could be sent a subpoena to appear as a witness – in a case involving the unlawful release of a Chechen crime boss in 2013. He has ignored three subpoenas from the interior ministry.
But he is also accused of multiple incidents of corruption – all of which he denies. He has ignored orders to surrender to police for questioning, characterising them as illegal.