Somalia is undergoing a historic process of change, moving towards peace from decades of violent conflict, which ravaged the country and resulted in widespread suffering of its people. On 20 August 2012, the Transitional Road Map ended and Somalia is undergoing a historic process of change, moving towards peace from decades of violent conflict, which ravaged the country and resulted in widespread suffering of its people. On 20 August 2012, the Transitional Road Map ended, and a new chapter in the history of the country began. The Provisional Constitution of the Somali Republic was agreed and endorsed on 1 August 2012. The provisional constitution establishes two Houses of the legislature – a House of the People (or lower house) and a House of the Regional States (or upper house). The 275 Members of the House of the People were selected by Somalia’s traditional elders, and then approved by a Technical Selection Committee which was responsible for vetting candidates. This process was undertaken during August and September 2012 and resulted in a parliament widely recognized as representative and credible. In the absence of the Upper House, the Provisional Constitution mandates the House of Peoples to constitute the National Federal Parliament by itself.
The Federal Government of Somalia, UN and Donor Community Launched New Joint Programmes through the Somalia Development and Reconstruction Facility (SDRF), within the framework of the Somali New Deal Compact. These joint programmes directly support the Peace-building and State-building Goals of the Somali Compact, and the key deliverables of the Government’s Vision 2016, with a specific focus on achieving results in the state formation process, constitutional review, electoral support, rule of law, youth employment, and institutional capacity development. The initiatives will in particular build a stronger civil service at Federal and State levels, support more effective delivery of justice services, and provide thousands of jobs for Somali youth. They will also support key deliverables in the Government’s Vision 2016, including the formation of new federal member states in the South and Central regions of Somalia, undertaking the review of the constitution, and building capacity of the country to deliver democratic electoral political processes. The launch of these programmes within the framework of the SDRF reflects the strong commitment of the international community and the Government of Somalia to work as one in order to improve the lives of Somali women, men and children, thus strengthen the government institutions and cooperation between Somalia and international partners.
Somaliland has a bi-cameral parliament composed of a lower house (the Golaha wakiilada) consisting of 82 elected members and an upper house (Golaha Guurtida) which consists of 82 clan chiefs. The Guurti is established to promote peace and security, to maintain customary law and to ensure Islam as the religion in Somaliland. The guurti has the power to revise all laws from the Gulaha Wakiilada.
Puntland’s Parliament was established in 1998 and was initially comprised of Members appointed by clan leaders. The Puntland Parliament consists of 66 legislators in the current Parliament who represent clans residing in PL. The election of the President and Vice President is then carried out by MPs, all of whom served a term of four years. Since its formation, Puntland has had three Parliaments and three Presidents. The current Parliament was selected in January 2014.
In 2015/6 new parliaments were formed at state level for Jubaland, Galmudug and South-West state. The project from the very beginning engaged with these parliaments and provided technical assistance and material support from the initial phase. Depending on the progress of state formation additional parliaments may emerge in the months ahead.
The UNDP Parliamentary Support Project provides technical and material assistance to National Federal Parliament, the parliaments in Puntland and Somaliland as well as the newly emerging parliaments in order to effectively discharge their functions in relation to law-making, oversight and representation. This support helps creating the foundations for longer-term development, both in terms of building up the parliaments of Somalia as representative, capable and trusted state institutions, as well as working directly with MPs to strengthen their capacities to contribute to nation-building efforts.
This Project has five offices namely UNCC and MIA in Mogadishu; Hargeisa, Somaliland; Garowe, Puntland; and Nairobi, Kenya.
The existing Parliamentary Support Project is intended for the period of March 2013-December 2016. The project has not been evaluated so far and it will come to an end by December 2016. UNDP Somalia would like to conduct a mid-term evaluation of the project engaging three experts to work as an independent evaluation team for this assignment.
The objective of the evaluation is to assess the impact of the project so far (results, achievements, constraints), to provide information on the effectiveness, relevance and value added of the support provided to parliaments in Somalia and Somaliland by UNDP since 2013, and to receive recommendations for the design of a follow up project for the period 2017-2020.
The following are the outcome and outputs of the UNDP Parliamentary Support Project: